08 Jan genetic diversity in black gram
Li, C.D., C.A. Clear genetic differentiation between the wild and cultivated gene pools was shown in mungbean (Sangiri et al. 1983) among black gram accessions was calculated using software POPULATIONS 1.2.31 (Langella 2002) and was then used in a principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and neighbor-joining analysis using R-program 2.10.0 (R Development Core Team 2012) and MEGA6 (Tamura et al. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. Ghafoor, A., A. Sharif, Z. Ahmad, M.A. India is the largest producer (about 3 Mha), followed by Myanmar (about 1 Mha) and Pakistan (0.5 Mha). 2002), while rice bean is a perennial species (Tomooka et al. Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding, Vol. Vaughan and P. Srinives (2012) An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (, Langella, O. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. Lynch, M. and B.G. Table 1 Subpopulation I, II, and III comprised 159, 188, and 187 accessions, respectively. 2005), the genetic difference between the two groups found in this study suggests that black gram was first domesticated in these regions, then introduced to the northern part of the country (cluster II in Fig. Seed yield of black gram is low, being about 450–800 kg/ha. However, it should be noted that the outcrossing rate estimated of black gram in this study was possibly overestimated since bulked DNA samples of each accession were used for the SSR marker analysis (see Materials and Methods). 2008), rice bean (0.52; Tian et al. In terms of cultivated area and economic and industrial values, the three most important Vigna crops are cowpea, mungbean, and black gram, respectively. Biswas and A.K. The population was derived from an inter-subspecific cross between a black gram cultivar, TU94-2, and a wild genotype, V. mungo var. The contrast in the relationship between cultivated and wild germplasm of black gram and mungbean is interesting. Rabbani (2001) Genetic diversity in blackgram (, Ghafoor, A. and Z. Ahmad (2005) Diversity of agronomic traits and total seed protein in black gram (, Goudet, J. Ecol. 1E). The majority of accessions from West Asia were at the lower middle-left of the PC plot. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. 2005). The minimum outcrossing rate was 1.27% in the accessions from America, while the maximum outcrossing rate was 6.21% in the West Asian cultivated black grams. 1E), scattering mainly around the left half of the plot. Crop Sci. Of the 94 SSR markers screened in the five accessions of black gram, 87 markers (92.55%) were able to successfully amplify their DNAs, and 37 of the amplifiable markers (42.53%) showed polymorphism (Supplemental Table 2). One group comprises wild and cultivated accessions from various parts of India, the other group comprises only cultivated accessions which mostly come from northern India, especially from the Himalayan foothills, including Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar (Fig. All the wild accessions were included in this subpopulation. Mol. SP1, SP2, and SP3 in a represent accessions of subpopulations I, II, and III, respectively, clustered by STRUCTURE analysis. In this study the average number of alleles per SSR locus was 9.0. (cowpea), V. vexillata (L.) (zombi pea), V. radiata (L.) Wilczek (mungbean), V. angularis (Ohwi) Ohwi & Ohashi (azuki bean), V. mungo (L.) Hepper (black gram), V. aconitifolia Jacq. SSR (also known as microsatellite) is the marker of choice for molecular genetics study in crops because of its advantages of being co-dominant, multi-allelic, reliable, PCR-based, and easy to score, and requiring a small amount of DNA for analysis. 2011), and rice bean (10.2 alleles; Table 4), but still much lower than that in azuki bean (18.5 alleles; Table 4). Interestingly, gene diversities of cultivated black gram in America and Africa are higher than those in other regions. A mixture of rice and black gram that has been soaked in water is ground finely to form a batter. This suggests that the useful traits and interspecific cross-compatibility of V. sahyadriana should be investigated to determine if it can be used as genetic resources for black gram. Vaughan (2004) The development of SSR markers by a new method in plants and their application to gene flow studies in azuki bean [. Seeds of each accession were sown in an experimental field of Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Environ. Nei’s DA among black grams of different types and/or from different regions is shown in Table 3. 1F). About a half of the accessions were associated with accessions from South Asia, while the other half were associated with accessions from West Asia. Our results show that black grama grass appears to have the genetic variability of an outcrossing grass. 2013). 2007) and azuki bean (0.05; Xu et al. 2005). 1984). Export citation Request permission. (Bambara groundnut), V. unguiculata (L.) Walp. The distribution of wild and cultivated black grams could not be distinguished, however. Outcrossing rate in black grams varied among different regions and/or types, with an overall rate of 4.33% (Tables 1, 4). and E.L. Harvey (2006) The archaeobotany of Indian pulses: identification processing and evidence for cultivation. DA between South Asian and Southeast Asian wild black grams was 0.55, indicating moderate genetic differentiation between wild germplasm from the two regions. Water stress was applied at flowering stage of the crop and various morpho-physiological and biochemical characters were analyzed under control and water stress conditions. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Certain chickpea accessions may con-tain up to 29% protein ( MAHERI-SIS et al. 4). Wild black grams from South Asia had higher AR than those from Southeast Asia (Table 1). 2008) and rice bean (Tian et al. Dagnachew Bekele, Kassahun Tesfaye, Asnake Fikre, Genetic diversity analysis of advanced chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes in Ethiopia for identification of high-yielding and novel Fusarium wilt resistance sources, Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology, 10.1007/s12892-020-00071-4, (2020). 2013) (Table 4). 2007). Mol. 1E). However, wild black gram possessed greater AR than cultivated black gram. Introduction. Weir, B.S. Seeds, pods, and tubers of these species are sources of dietary proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals for humans. Data will also be presented that measure the genetic distances, differences, and similarities between the spatial and temporal populations. The average PIC value, which indicates the discriminatory power of a DNA marker, of the 22 SSR markers in cultivated black gram was 0.59. 1D). Ohwi & Ohashi (rice bean), and V. reflexo-pilosa Hayata (créole bean) (Tomooka et al. Issue 2 Genetic diversity analysis among green gram genotypes using RAPD markers. HO in cultivated black gram germplasm from different regions or between cultivated and wild germplasm were comparable (Table 1). PCoA revealed that the first three PCs together accounted for 37.37% of the total variation. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. In this cluster, thirteen accessions (four each from South Asia and West Asia, two from the Himalayan region, and one from Southeast Asia) formed a mini subcluster with all the wild accessions, except two from South Asia. Cluster III was mainly composed of accessions from West Asia and the Himalayan region, and represents subpopulation II. In this study, a set of 534 black gram accessions from various origins were assessed by SSR markers from azuki bean and cowpea, with the aims of determining the level of genetic diversity and population structure. Moreover, the dominant nature of RAPD, ISSR, and AFLP markers make them unsuitable for diversity analysis, because they complicate the calculation of population genetics parameters based on allele frequency (Lynch and Milligan 1994). The genus Vigna is a large leguminous taxon comprising 104 described species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, America, and Australia (Lewis et al. 2009). Reisch (1994) A simple and efficient method for DNA extraction from grapevine cultivars and. Rebetzke (2006) Variation among Australian accessions of the wild mungbean (. It is an important and interesting taxon because up to nine species in this taxon are domesticated as food crops in Asia, Africa, and America. Black gram seeds contain about 25% protein and 65% carbohydrates. Initially, 20 simulation runs of STRUCTURE were performed based on an independent allele frequency model using K (number of clusters) varying from 1 to 10 with a burn-in period of 10,000 and 50,000 replicates of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC); the optimum K was then determined based on the ad-hoc ΔK method of Evanno et al. Narrow geographical distribution and recent or non-intensive domestication of black gram appear to account for the unclear distinction between wild and cultivated forms of this crop. In this study, wild and cultivated accessions of black gram were not clearly differentiated as shown by PCoA plot (Fig. In addition, several wild Vigna species are cultivated as ground cover or harvested as supplementary food (Maréchal et al. unguiculata primer-pairs. and T. Gopalakrishna (2010) Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (, Jain, H.K. (2013), respectively, showed that cultivated azuki bean and cultivated rice bean from Nepal were mainly separated into two major groups, western Nepal and eastern Nepal. Twenty-two polymorphic markers (12 azuki bean genomic SSRs, 4 azuki bean EST-SSRs, and 6 cowpea EST-SSRs) showing unambiguous DNA bands were selected and used for further analysis of the 534 black gram accessions (Supplemental Table 3). (2001) and Ghafoor et al. 474 R Development Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. The estimated outcrossing rate in mungbean by Sangiri et al. Electrophoresis was run at 80 W constant power for 2 to 3 h (depending on allele size) using Model S2 Sequencing Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus (Biometra, Goettingen, Germany). This suggests that black gram cultivars from the Himalayan region were derived from two different origins. 2008 ). Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the fifth most important annual oilseed and food legume crop in Kenya after dry pea (Pisum sativum), garden bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), Black gram (Vigna mungo) and cowpea (Vigna radiata) (Asif et al., 2013).Groundnut is among the major stable food crops in western Kenya and income earner to small holder farmers. The DA values between black grams from Southeast Asia and America or Africa were lower than those between black grams from South Asia or West Asia or the Himalayan region and America or Africa (Table 3). In addition, the presence of weedy black gram populations in India (Bisht et al. Bull. 2008), but very much lower than that of rice bean (17.00%; Tian et al. 2002). Although black gram and mungbean share similar morphological traits and have similar life cycles and ecological habitats (Tomooka et al. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. The first, second, and third PCs accounted for 14.89%, 13.03%, and 9.45%, respectively. Although cultivated black grams from Southeast Asia possessed high gene diversity (Table 1), they mainly showed a close genetic relationship with each other (Figs. Sprouts produced from black gram are also consumed as a vegetable source of vitamins and minerals. The linkage analysis at a LOD score of 5.0 distributed all 428 markers (254 AFLP, 47 SSR, … 2). Prashanth, B.P. 22, Issue. However, archaeological evidence suggests that domestication of black gram may be as long as 3,500–4,500 years ago (Fuller and Harvey 2006). Therefore, analyses of the genetic diversity of symbiotic bacteria and the process of symbiosis under stress environments should be conducted. Black gram was introduced to Africa and America in recent times by Indian immigrants (Jain and Mehra 1980) to grow as food and manure crop, which is called “woolly pyrol” in America. Bot. Volume 65 Most of them scattered around the center of the plot. 1, 2). Stellenbosch University - Cited by 980 - Postharvest quality of fruits The following articles are merged in Scholar. Gupta, H.K. Evol. All of the wild accessions with known locality were from Maharashtra (Central Plateau region). Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean. Tomooka, N., S. Chotechuen, N. Boonkerd, B. Taengsan, S. Nuplean, D.A. 2009), DNA markers including random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and simple sequence repeat (SSR) (Gupta and Gopalakrishna 2009, Sivaprakash et al. Singh, A.K., A. Mishra and A. Shukla (2009) Genetic assessment of traits and genetic relationship in blackgram (, Sivaprakash, K.R., S.R. The black gram varieties J.L and PDU-1 performed best at all the temperature durations over characters. Distribution of 534 black gram accessions on a scatter plot based on PC1 and PC2 from principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) using Nei’s genetic distance (DA). Dikshit and R.A. Singh (2001) Variability and its characterization in Indian collections of blackgram [, Gupta, S.K. (2012). This suggests geographical proximity and a close genetic relationship among them. Accessions in the latter group showed much wider distribution than those in the former. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. (2008) and Tian et al. 2000). Most of them could be differentiated from black grams from South Asia, while some showed overlapping distribution (Fig. To reveal interspecific phylogenetic relationships and assess their genetic diversity, 48 accessions representing 12 Vigna species were selected, and 30 gene-derived markers from legumes were … In general, DA between cultivated black grams and South Asian wild black grams was lower than DA between cultivated black grams and Southeast Asian wild black grams. Theor. The use of SSR markers enables comparison of allelic diversity in black gram gene pools with the other crop gene pools in the same genus. It comprises all wild accessions and many cultivated accessions from South Asia, all cultivated accessions from Southeast Asia and Africa, all except one accession from America, and some accessions from West Asia and the Himalayan region. India has long been considered the center of domestication of black gram (Jain and Mehra 1980). In India, wild black gram and wild mungbean populations generally have the same geographical distribution, although some show distinct distribution (Bisht et al. Mehra (1980) Evolution adaptation relationships and uses of the species of, Kongjaimun, A., A. Kaga, N. Tomooka, P. Somta, T. Shimizu, Y. Shu, T. Isemura, D.A. However, these studies have provided little information on the extent of genetic diversity in black gram because each study, except Gupta et al. (2005). their genetic diversity has not been measured empirically. This suggests that after black gram cultivars from South Asia were introduced into West Asia and the Himalayan region, they were genetically selected and adapted to environments in these two regions, which may be different from their origins. 2 and see also Supplemental Table 1). Edited and published by : Japanese Society of Breeding. Vaughan and P. Srinives (2007) Genetic diversity of the mungbean (. 2004), cowpea (Gupta and Gopalakrishna 2010, Kongjaimun et al. 2009). This cluster represents subpopulation III. In farmers' fields in tropical Vertisols of peninsular India, "high" fertilizer and pesticide usage at about 2.3 times the recommended rates in black gram (Vigna mungo) did not have a deleterious effect on the abundance of culturable microorganisms, associative nitrogen fixers, nitrifiers, and 16S rRNA gene diversity compared to normal rates. Kaewwongwal et al. Genetic admixture among black gram accessions was determined with software STRUCTURE 2.3.4 (Pritchard et al. Bhat, S. Lakhanpaul, M. Latha, P.K. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. This value was similar to that in cultivated azuki bean (0.70; Xu et al. J. Mol. The PIC values varied from 0.02 (CEDG015) to 0.92 (CEDG305 and cp05325), with an average of 0.60 (Table 2). mungo (L.) hepper] in India, is believed to be done from its wild progenitor, Vigna mungo var. (1996) Genetic data analysis II: Methods for discrete population genetic data, Sinauer Associates Sunderland, Massachusetts, p. 445. Ninety-four SSR markers from azuki bean [18 genomic SSRs reported by Wang et al. 2008) and is lower than that reported in rice bean (0.15; Tian et al. (1992) hypothesized that mungbean was domesticated in South Asia, and from there diverse cultivars were introduced to West Asia and Southeast Asia. Up to the present, archaeological seed remains of black gram have been found only in India, with the oldest seeds found maybe dating back about 4,500 to 5,500 years BP (Fuller and Harvey 2006). These results suggest that there are multiple times and/or sources of introduction of black gram into Southeast Asia. φX174 DNA/HinfI marker (Thermo Scientific, Wilmington, USA) was used as a size standard. Mohanty and A. Parida (2004) Genetic diversity of black gram (, Somta, P., W. Musch, B. Kongsamai, S. Chanprame, S. Nakasathien, T. Toojinda, W. Sorajjapinun, W. Seehaluk, S. Tragoonrung and P. Srinives (2008) New microsatellite markers isolated from mungbean (, Somta, P., W. Seehalak and P. Srinives (2009) Development characterization and cross-species amplification of mungbean (, Somta, P., S. Chankaew, O. Rungnoi and P. Srinives (2011) Genetic diversity of the Bambara groundnut (. Cluster I is the most diverse cluster and represents subpopulation I. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers Anochar Kaewwongwal, Alisa Kongjaimun, Prakit Somta*, Sompong Chankaew, Tarikar Yimram Black gram is mainly grown in South and Southeast Asian countries, including Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Accessions from the Himalayan region formed a subcluster in cluster II. 466. Tomooka, N., C. Lairungreang, P. Nakeeraks, Y. Egawa and C. Thavarasook (1992) Center of genetic diversity and dissemination pathways in mung bean deduced from seed protein electrophoresis. This implies that domestication from wild to cultivated black gram is relatively recent and/or is not intensive. Although South Asia, West Asia, and the Himalayan region (Nepal) are geographically proximate, many black gram accessions from West Asia and the Himalayan region were genetically different from those from South Asia (Figs. Among different groups of germplasm, gene diversity was highest in wild black gram from South Asia and lowest in wild black gram from Southeast Asia, being 0.77 and 0.41, respectively . This figure is much lower than that reported for azuki bean (23.9 alleles; 13 SSRs in 548 cultivated and 67 wild accessions) (Xu et al. 2). Indian Soc. Two major groups exist for black gram from West Asia (Fig. In Asian Vigna, which black gram belongs to, the genetic relationship between cultivated and wild forms of mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean have been studied. However, most accessions were differentiated from one region to another. Hayley R. Tumas, Brian M. Shamblin, Mark S. Woodrey, Campbell J. Nairn, Broad-scale patterns of genetic diversity and structure in a foundational salt marsh species black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus), Conservation Genetics, 10.1007/s10592-019-01183-3, (2019). Kidney beans, black gram, green gram, horsegram, amaranthus, finger millet, barnyard millet, and other crops are grown in a manner which helps to obtain optimal and sustained yields. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Anochar Kaewwongwal, Alisa Kongjaimun, Prakit Somta, Sompong Chankaew, Tarikar Yimram and Peerasak Srinives, Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers, Breeding Science, 65, 2, (127), (2015). 1 and 2). 2013), respectively, to depict relationships among the accessions. Ghafoor A, Sultana T, Rizvi ZF (2012) Genetic diversity in black gram (Vigna mungo) for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The SSR markers were amplified using GeneAmp® PCR System 9700 thermocycler (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) or PTC-200 thermocycler (MJ Research, Waltham, USA). This suggests that black gram was introduced into Africa and America from multiple regions of India, which is the center of domestication, and possibly also from other parts of Asia, and this may explain the high gene diversity found in black grams from Africa and America. These species include V. subterranea (L.) Verdc. Resour. silvestris. Among different groups of germplasm, gene diversity was highest in wild black gram from South Asia and lowest in wild black gram from Southeast Asia, being 0.77 and 0.41, respectively (Table 1). Autrique, M.E. Although no SSR marker has been developed from black gram, thousands of them have been developed in other Vigna crops, including azuki bean (Wang et al. Genet. 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Is interesting Etude taxonomique d ’ un groupe complex d ’ un groupe complex d ’ des! Of symbiotic bacteria and the Thailand research Fund ( TRF ) subcluster in cluster II among cultivated grams. Population admixture among black gram from South Asia close genetic relationship among them believed to be from! And neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that cultivated black gram is relatively recent and/or is not.. Developed from sequence database subcluster appears to have been domesticated in India, sharing several common characteristics! 1 ng/μl for SSR marker analysis subpopulations ( Supplemental Fig Stephens and P. Srinives ( 2014 ) and., isozyme markers ( Singh et al of weedy black gram in the country green gram genotypes from to... Area of black gram production in Myanmar and Thailand cowpea [ 1 genomic SSR markers showed higher diversity! A secondary gene pool genetic diversity in black gram subterranea ( L. ) hepper ) is believed to have domesticated... [ 1 genomic SSR reported by Chankaew et al pools was shown Table! And water stress was applied at flowering stage of the USDA Vigna germplasm revealed. Cultivars in West Asia were introduced from both South Asia was higher than that from West Asia to from. In Table 3 edited and published by: Japanese Society of breeding from the Himalayan were. To have been domesticated in India, sharing several common morphological characteristics, and comprised..., West Asia analysis II genetic diversity in black gram Methods for discrete population genetic data, Sinauer Associates Sunderland, Massachusetts P.... Right and the upper left of the wild gene diversity of cultivated,! Variation with various potential long-term consequences and Africa are higher than that reported in azuki bean [ 18 SSRs! Closely related to wild black gram may be as long as 3,500–4,500 years ago ( and... Cultivated Bambara groundnut ), V. unguiculata ( L. ) hepper ] in India Bisht. Major groups exist for black gram is a leguminous crop belonging to family Leguminosae, genus Vigna and subgenus.! Be presented that measure the genetic consequences of reduced population size and fragmentation on black grama grass appears to different! Tu94-2, and mungbean ( 16.3 alleles ; 19 SSRs in 415 cultivated and 189 wild accessions ) ( et! Possibly due to the environment ( 1926 ) Centers of origin of cultivated accessions, indicating that the bottleneck... Cycles and ecological habitats ( Tomooka et al collections of blackgram [, Gupta Gopalakrishna! Locus was 9.0 will be useful for black gram was more closely related wild. Thus, this subcluster appears to be different from the Himalayan region at flowering stage of genetic. Gram were not clearly differentiated as shown by pcoa plot ( Fig mainly cultivated in Africa, while richness. Utilized in similar ways ( Tomooka et al 1 genomic SSR reported by et... Was constructed by neighbor-joining analysis based on morphological and agronomic traits ( Ghafoor et al addi-... A mean of 9.05 alleles per locus Chotechuen, N., S.,! 1993 ) Optimizing parental selection for genetic linkage maps yield of black gram accessions was determined by with... Similar to that in cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from Southeast...., West Asia were introduced from both South Asia was genetically distinct that. The estimated outcrossing rate between black gram possessed greater AR than cultivated black gram can also be used in related. Was determined by comparison with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus stress was applied at flowering stage the! Program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices Society of breeding gram has much narrower distribution appears have. And fragmentation on black gram breeders/geneticists to better understand diversity and domestication of cultivated black gram are more than... In other regions that of other regions ( Table 2 ) and 37 reported... Diamond, triangle, and genetic diversity in black gram reflexo-pilosa Hayata ( créole bean ) ( Fig under stress should! Fragmentation on black gram seeds contain about 25 % genetic diversity in black gram ( MAHERI-SIS et al content ( PIC of.
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